When Serre and Grothendieck were coming up with an extension of the usual cohomology theory to varieties in algebraic geometry, an important example was given by Serre which showed that you couldn’t have a Weil cohomology theory with coefficients in in characteristic . I will explain the example and extend it to show something about the ordinary case.

# Constructible sets, openness of flat maps and generic freeness.

I will cover a set of results that are connected and illustrate some interesting techniques about working with finiteness conditions (finitely generated as a ring, module etc) in algebraic geometry over a field.

Initially, I will prove Chevalley’s theorem that the image of a constructible set is constructible. This will involve proving Grothendieck’s generic freeness and Noetherian induction. Next, I will give a couple of applications of Chevalley’s theorem – I will prove that flat maps are open and provide a different proof of the Nullstellensatz.

# Irreducibility of Galois representations attached to Elliptic Curves

**Epistemic status: **I have not checked this carefully for errors, it is entirely possible there are mistakes in this.

We will be mostly be concerned with Elliptic curves over number fields . However, let us start with a general lemma about Elliptic curves with endomorphism ring . In this post, I collect some properties about representations coming from Elliptic curves.

# Noether Normalization, Spreading out and the Nullstellensatz .

Hilbert’s Nullstellensatz plays a central role in algebraic geometry. It can be seen as the fundamental link between the modern theory of schemes and the classical theory of algebraic varieties over fields. Since this is one of the first results a novice in algebraic geometry learns and is often proved very algebraically, one often does not gain a good understanding of the proof till much later.

I will present three proofs of the Nullstellensatz found in the literature from a geometric perspective. This will highlight the role of the “spreading out and specializing” common to the proofs that might not be obvious from an algebraic presentation. The last proof is a very short, self contained demonstration of the techniques. Along the way, we will also see a geometric proof of Noether Normalization.

The proof of Hilbert’s lemma is usually broken up into the following two steps: 1) Prove the *weak *Nullstellensatz and 2) Derive the strong Nullstellensatz using the Rabinowitsch or other means. I will be focusing solely on the first step in this post. Nothing in this is original except for the presentation.

# Weak Mordell-Weil and various approaches to it

**I will show a few different approaches to the Weak Mordell-Weil theorem and how they are all really the same proof. The various proofs use the Hermite-Minkowski theorem, Class Field Theory and the Dirichlet’s Unit theorem/finiteness of Class group.**

Let be an elliptic curve over a number field. The Mordell-Weil theorem says that the group of rational points is finitely generated. This is usually proven in two steps:

**Weak Mordell-Weil Theorem:**We prove for some that is finite.**Theory of heights:**We define the notion of a height of a point on (roughly, how many bits of information one would need to store the point). Using this and (1), the completion of the proof is quite formal.

I will focus here on the weak Mordell-Weil theorem and in particular, an approach to it using the Hermite-Minkowski theorem. This approach will apply without very little change to the case of Abelian varieties and the general technique seems to be applicable in great generality.

The idea of the proof is as follows:

- Reduce the case of general to supposing that contains the n-torsion using the Kummer sequence.
- Use the Kummer Pairing to reduce to showing that the inverse image of under the multiplication by map generates a finite extension of .
- Show that there is a smooth, proper model of over an open subset of and hence the inverse image of generates an extension etale over , not just .
- Apply Hermite-Minkowski.

# Weil pairing and Galois descent

There is an interesting way in which Weil pairing on Abelian Varieties is nothing more than Galois descent for a particular Galois extension. I have not seen this connection used before in the literature but I have also not seen a lot of literature…

Let be an abelian variety over a field of characteristic . Suppose is an integer coprime to and let denote the multiplication by map with kernel .

Recall that there is a dual abelian variety representing the Picard functor for . In particular, is the group of line bundles on such that is trivial. and are finite abelian groups and the Weil pairing is a perfect pairing of the form:

It’s definition goes as follows: Let be a divisor corresponding to and let be a rational function on such that . Then, for , we define .

If denotes translation by , then is the pull back of along . Since , and have the same divisor and so is regular everywhere on and hence constant by properness of . A little more work shows that this rational functions is in . We will see below that this is an immediate conclusion of our alternate viewpoint.

This is the standard picture. However, there is also this alternate way of looking at things:

Consider the etale Galois extension . It’s galois group is canonically identified with . Moreover, is precisely the set of line bundles on trivialized by this etale cover. In other words, it is the set of Galois twists of (or even for any line bundle). Since descent is effective for this extension, this will immediately imply that:

The final equality is because acts trivially on . We also see immediately that since is m-torison as an Abelian group. Therefore, this gives us a pairing:

Explicitly, the map goes as follows: Given a line bundle , we pick an isomorphism . Then, the corresponding 1-cocycle for is defined by . It is easily seen that this is the same explicit construction as in the standard viewpoint.

**Conclusion:**

I find the Galois descent viewpoint conceptually satisfying. The standard treatments of the Weil pairing can seem arbitrary and it not clear why such a pairing should exist or be useful. On the other hand, is a perfectly natural Galois extension connected to and torsors are clearly an interesting thing to consider.

# Some notes of mine

I wrote these notes a while back for my own reference. I don’t know how useful they will be to others but they are my attempt to understand the subjects they talk about. They have no references to where I got the material since they are only intended for private use (despite my publishing them here…).

**1. Modular forms over finite characteristic:**

These notes contain material from Serre’s article on modular forms mod-p and at the very end, a little bit about modular forms over the p-adics as in Serre’s paper culminating in a definition of the Kubota-Leopoldt p-adic zeta function using this theory.

After a brief summary of classical modular forms, the results should be more or less self contained. The most interesting section (in my opinion…) is Section 4 where I briefly discuss Katz’ perspective on modular forms and use it to show that the Hasse invariant is a modular form and compute it’s q-expansion using the Tate curve. This section is also scarce on details and I understood this stuff by reading Prof. Emerton’s wonderful expository article here.

The article is here: Modular_Forms_mod_P.

**2. Complex Multiplication**

This is my attempt to streamline and summarize the main results of complex multiplication as I see them. This is short (about 5-6 pages) and the final section is my answer to the question here.

The article is here: Complex_Multiplication_notes.

**3. Growth of Class number in extensions**

A summary of the relevant chapter in Washington’s books. Nothing new here.

The article is: Growth_of_class_groups_in_Z_p_extensions.